7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in
The world of data protection is more complex today than it's ever been before. Data collection continues to grow and is even more dynamic; because data is so valuable, it moves and evolves as it is used for different purposes from online transactions or web applications, through data marts and warehouses for business reporting, and into big data platforms for in-depth analysis or long-term storage. Data is used in a variety of ways, thus more and more users and developers are touching this data.
Not all think about security, nor do they have the coding skills to build in security from the ground up. Thus, it is even more important that the layer of data protection closest to the data is up to the job in this new and riskier environment. With Version 10, IBM Security Guardium is officially renamed to be part of the IBM Security portfolio, which reflects the importance that security organizations worldwide are placing on data protection.
More than a renaming, IBM Security Guardium takes a major step forward with intelligence and automation to safeguard data.
An emphasis is placed on capabilities to make the solution more adaptable and easier to use in a dynamic IT environment while it continues to evolve its analysis and intelligence capabilities and breadth of coverage, such as protection for file system data.
View image at full size. This article is a technical overview of the new features and changes in Version 10, including enhancements that were delivered as part of Except for the description of a new offering, file activity monitoring, most of what is described here targets experienced Guardium users who have some understanding of the existing capabilities.
As usual, please monitor updates via release notes to learn of additional changes that are delivered via the service stream or minor releases. Guardium solutions for databases, data warehouses, file systems, and applications are built on a common platform.
This section describes the enhancements in the common platform:. A major focus of Version 10 has been to modernize and simplify the user interface, an effort that will continue over subsequent releases. This section covers the following enhancements:. When you first install Guardium, you'll notice that it has a new look and feel, powered by modern technology.
Let's walk through some of the changes you'll see. The banner is a powerful control center with alerts, to-dos, and an enhanced search bar. The UI search bar will be your best friend in helping you find a tool or report quickly by name. The navigation on the left is now simplified and normalized across both administrator and user roles:. The help system has also modernized. You can access the help system from the banner or from the question mark icons on the individual pages in the UI.
An example of the direction that the Guardium UI is taking can be seen in a new task flow that takes you end to end through a guided workflow that goes from sensitive data discovery, to data protection defining security policiesto compliance defining audit process ; all without requiring users to jump from place to place in the user interface. If you go through the entire workflow, relevant artifacts are created, such as a classification policy, an audit process to schedule the classification, and even a security policy with the relevant access rules to protect discovered sensitive data.
The process to customize the user interface and manage permissions for different roles is dramatically simplified in Version Everything is in one central location and uses a simple "slushbucket" approach. For example, if you want to create a very simple interface with only a few read-only reports for a particular auditor, it can be done quickly and easily.
The Guardium access manager creates a new role called "Myfavoriteauditor. Then the access manager goes to Customize Navigation Menu for that role 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in specifies which 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in "Myfavoriteauditor" can see.
Now when users are assigned the "Myfavoriteauditor" role, they will only see the simplified navigation when they log in. Now you can specify that certain roles can only see certain reports. The example below shows that the person with the role "limited" will only see the five reports specified and cannot add any other reports to their dashboards. To improve control over administration capabilities, the Administration Console application ID was removed in V This enables administrators to pick and choose more carefully which roles should have permissions to do things such as installing policies and creating inspection engines.
Guardium includes hundreds of built-in reports and a flexible reporting capability to allow you to create as many custom reports as you need. The sheer number of reports can make finding your own important reports a bit more challenging. Version 10 introduces the concept of "My Dashboards. Each user can name the dashboards and create as many dashboards as needed.
The following figure shows My Dashboards in the navigation menu. You can see that this user already created several dashboards to help organize reports by topic.
The following figure shows a particularly colorful dashboard and highlights some of the widgets, including customizing the look of an existing graphical report, changing the runtime parameters, and marking reports as favorites.
By using favorites it enables you to filter reports in audit processes or when you are creating new dashboards so that you don't need to scroll down through hundreds of reports or devise your own naming scheme to ensure that your reports filter to the top of the list. When you add a report to a dashboard, you can find them easily by name by typing in the first few characters in a field that requires selection from a list.
Audit processes are used in Guardium to automate many periodic tasks such as reporting and scanning and to send results to designated receiver roles for review or sign off. The builder is revamped to lead you step by step through the process and includes smarter defaults and usability features. For example, when creating a report task you can filter your favorites.
For reports, security assessments, and classifier tasks, you can use typeahead to locate reports by name. Administrators will love this new central location to see the status of Guardium services. And it provides a one-stop launchpad to where you need to go to configure the service.
Enterprises with hundreds and thousands of datasources will particularly benefit from this new datasource management interface. You can filter and sort this table quickly 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in find datasources by type, name, or other typical characteristics.
You can create, edit, copy, and delete datasources from the new datasource management interface as well. Guardium has a federated architecture to support scalability and manageability. This architecture relies on a Central Manager to provide administrators with a single console for management and control. When configured properly, the view will show parent-child relationships between nodes based on data import and export configurations.
Hovering on a node will provide more details on the particular health diagnosis based on connectivity, unit utilization, and aggregation. As an example, the following collector details show that this unit is experiencing growing issues with disk usage and does not have an aggregation that is scheduled.
By addressing this issue quickly, administrators can fix the issue before it becomes more serious. A tabular view of health also exists, as shown in the following image. This tabular view provides a flat view of 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in details, has sortable columns, and it can be exported to CSV format as well.
Guardium is designed to be centrally managed, including the ability to push configuration information to managed units from the single Central Manager console without requiring changes to the CM configuration itself. Now, using a simple wizard, administrators can create configuration profiles for certain types of configurations and specify which managed unit groups should receive those profiles.
The following screenshot shows the configuration profile builder. In addition, a distribution run log report will alert administrators if the configuration was distributed and received correctly by the managed units. Correlation alerts are a powerful capability in Guardium that allow you to build alerts that can fire based on database events that reach a certain threshold over time.
Correlation alerts are also used frequently for system events to help administrators keep an eye on system health. Management of these alerts is much easier in If you didn't want a particular alert to run on 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in managed unit, you would need to disable it on that MU. The following 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in shows that you can create an alert that is activated on any particular unit or group of units.
There is also a new display from Anomaly Detection that shows which alerts are deployed and where. On a non-CM, the display would only show the alerts for this managed unit. Guardium has been steadily delivering enhancements to help analysts visualize and explore data. We do not cover outlier detection, which is thoroughly covered in another developerWorks article. The following capabilities are described here:.
This capability was introduced in a 9. Previously, Quick Search was only available on a per-collector basis, requiring you to know which collector had the data you wanted to search.
Quick Search for Enterprise simplifies the identification of specific data by extending the existing Quick Search interface to support searches across a Guardium environment from a Central Manager, or potentially from any Guardium machine within that environment. Each collector in a managed environment indexes its own data.
There are three "modes" of Quick Search for Enterprise:. Investigation dashboards evolved since they were first introduced. In addition, Quick Search data is included on the dashboards so you no longer need to toggle between charts and Quick Search for your investigations. Investigation dashboards provide a visual and interactive way for analysts to interact with audit data for both file and database activity.
Click on an area of interest and the dashboard will be dynamically filtered so that you can hone in on an area of investigation. You can also create and save multiple dashboards to support different investigative use cases and saving filters that can be used by other users. There are two demos of using the investigation dashboards for specific scenarios on the Guardium YouTube channel.
Links are included in the Related topics. The following dashboard shows one of the system predefined dashboards included in Dashboards and their filters encourage collaboration among users in an organization and with others in the community. Filters can be private or shared with others in your organization, simply by specifying which roles are able to use a filter that you save. Sharing filters saves time because one person can define filters for everyone, and you can also share filters to share a specific investigation case.
Dashboards can be shared with other Guardium users by exporting the dashboard definition. Only the dashboard definitions are encrypted and exported, not the filters; this means that if you have a dashboard that you configured with a good set of charts for investigating particular incident types, you can share this knowledge with other Guardium users without including actual attack data or revealing filters.
The animation chart that was added in V10 adds an important dimension of time to the Investigation Dashboard. This Investigation Dashboard helps analysts to visualize activity behavior over time by using data in motion. This chart uses animated bubbles to represent activity over the last 48 hours at most.
The data is "auto-played," where each frame is an hour in time and can be paused, much as you would when watching any video. All four dimensions that are used in the chart are configurable: This view supports the ability to drill down; clicking a bubble adds the selected data elements to the filters, and all charts are filtered accordingly.
This article seeks to describe the NTLM authentication protocol and related security support provider functionality at an intermediate to advanced level of detail, suitable as a reference for implementors. It is hoped that this document will evolve into a comprehensive description of NTLM; at this time there are omissions, both in the author's knowledge and in his documentation, and almost certainly inaccuracies.
However, this document should at least be able to provide a solid foundation for further research. The information presented herein was used as the basis for the implementation of NTLM authentication in the open-source jCIFS library, available at http: This documentation is based on independent research by the author and analysis of functionality implemented in the Samba software suite.
Links and References Appendix B: Authentication -- NTLM provides a challenge-response authentication mechanism, in which clients are able to prove their identities without sending a password to the server.
This ensures that the signed message has not been modified either accidentally or intentionally and that that signing party has knowledge of a shared secret.
NTLM implements a symmetric signature scheme Message Authentication Code, or MAC ; that is, a valid signature can only be generated and verified by parties that possess the common shared key. In the case of NTLM, sealing also implies signing a signed message is not necessarily sealed, but all sealed messages are signed. NTLM has been largely supplanted by Kerberos as the authentication protocol of choice for domain-based scenarios.
However, Kerberos is a trusted-third-party scheme, and cannot be used in situations where no trusted third party exists; for example, member servers servers that are not part of a domainlocal accounts, and authentication to resources in an untrusted domain. In such scenarios, NTLM continues to be the primary authentication mechanism and likely will be for a long time. NTLM Terminology Before we start digging in any further, we will need to define a few terms used in the various protocols.
NTLM authentication is a challenge-response scheme, consisting of three messages, commonly referred to as Type 1 negotiationType 2 challenge and Type 3 authentication. It basically works like this: The client sends a Type 1 message to the server. This primarily contains a list of features supported by the client and requested of the server.
The server responds with a Type 2 message. This contains a list of features supported and agreed upon by the server. Most importantly, however, it contains a challenge generated by the server. The 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in replies to the challenge with a Type 3 message.
This contains several pieces of information about the client, including the domain and username of the client user. It also contains one or more responses to the Type 2 challenge. The responses in 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in Type 3 message are the most critical piece, as they prove to the server that the client user has knowledge of the account password.
The process of authentication establishes a shared context 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in the two involved parties; this includes a shared session key, used for subsequent signing and sealing operations. In this document, to avoid confusion as much as possible, anyway the following convention will be observed: When discussing authentication, the protocol version will use "v-numbering"; for example, "NTLM v1 Authentication".
Hopefully by the time we get there this will all make much more sense. For our purposes, a " short " is a little-endian, bit unsigned value. For example, the decimal value " " represented as a short would be physically laid out as " 0xd " in hexadecimal.
A " long " is a little-endian, bit unsigned value. The decimal value " " represented as a long in hexidecimal would be " 0xd ". A Unicode string is a string in which each character is represented as a bit little-endian value bit UCS-2 Transformation Format, little-endian byte order, with no Byte Order Mark and no null-terminator. The string "hello" in Unicode would be represented hexidecimally as " 0xccf00 ".
An OEM string is a string in which each character is represented as an 8-bit value from the local machine's native character set DOS codepage. There is no null-terminator. A "security buffer" is a structure used to point to a buffer of binary data.
A short containing the length of the buffer content in bytes may be zero. A short containing the allocated space for the buffer in bytes greater than or equal to the length; typically the same as the length. A long containing the offset to the start of the buffer in bytes from the beginning of the NTLM message. So the security buffer " 0xdde " would be read as: You would read bytes which is the length of the buffer.
Since the allocated space for the buffer is also bytes, you would then be at the end of the buffer. Next is a long containing the message type 1, 2, or 3. A Type 1 message, for example, has type " 0x " in hex. This is followed by message-specific information, typically consisting of security 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in and the message flags.
This is a longin which each bit represents a specific flag. Most of these will make more sense later, but we'll go ahead and present them here to establish a frame of reference for the rest of the discussion.
Flags marked as "unidentified" or "unknown" in the table below are outside the realm of the author's knowledge which is not by any means absolute. Flag Name Description 0x Negotiate Unicode Indicates that Unicode strings are supported for use in security buffer data. This also affects the response fields as detailed in the " Anonymous Response " section. This is used by the server to determine whether the client 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in eligible for local authentication.
Implies that the client may use the established local credentials for authentication instead of calculating a response to the challenge. Presumably, this is for share-level authentication. Note that this refers to a particular session security scheme, and is not related to the use of NTLMv2 authentication. This flag can, however, have an effect on the response calculations as detailed in the " NTLM2 Session Response " section.
As an example, consider a message specifying: This would be physically laid out as " 0x " since it is represented in little-endian byte order. The Type 1 Message Let's jump in and take a look 7 red flags that indicate a potential binary options fraud frames and concept types applications in the Type 1 message: Its primary purpose is to establish the "ground rules" for authentication by indicating supported options via the flags.
Optionally, it can also provide the server with the client's workstation name and the domain in which the client workstation has membership; this information is used by the server to determine whether the client is eligible for local authentication.
Typically, the Type 1 message contains flags from the following set: Negotiate Unicode 0x The client sets this flag to indicate that it supports Unicode strings. Request Target 0x This requests that the server send the authentication target with the Type 2 reply. Negotiate Domain Supplied 0x When set, the client will send with the message the name of the domain in which the workstation has membership.
Negotiate Workstation Supplied 0x Indicates that the client is sending its workstation name with the message. Negotiate Always Sign 0x Indicates that communication between the client and server after authentication should carry a "dummy" signature. Negotiate 0x Indicates that this client supports strong bit encryption. Negotiate 56 0x Indicates that this client supports medium bit encryption. The supplied domain is a security buffer containing the domain in which the client workstation has membership.
This is always in OEM format, even if Unicode is supported by the client. The supplied workstation is a security buffer containing the client workstation's name. This, too, is in OEM rather than Unicode. The OS Version structure was introduced in recent Windows updates; it identifies the host's operating system build level, and is formatted as follows: There are three versions of the Type 1 message that have been observed in the wild: In this case the message ends after the flags field, and is a fixed-length byte structure.
This form is typically seen in older Win9x-based systems, and is roughly documented in the Open Group's ActiveX reference documentation Section The data block begins immediately after the security buffer headers, at offset This form is seen in most out-of-box shipping versions of Windows.
The data block begins after the OS Version structure, at offset This form was introduced in a relatively recent Service Pack, and is seen on currently-patched versions of WindowsWindows XP, and Windows The "most-minimal" well-formed Type 1 message, therefore, would be: The client is requesting that the server send information regarding the authentication target Request Target is set.
The client is running Windows 5. Note that the supplied workstation and domain are in OEM format. Additionally, the order in which the security buffer data blocks are laid out is unimportant; in the example, the workstation data is placed before the domain data. After creating the Type 1 message, the client sends it to the server. The server analyzes the message, much as we have just done, and creates a reply.
This brings us to our next topic, the Type 2 message. It serves to complete the negotiation of options with the client, and also provides a challenge to the client. It may optionally contain information about the authentication target.
Typical Type 2 message flags include: Negotiate Unicode 0x The server sets this flag to indicate that it will be using Unicode strings.
This should only be set if the client indicates in the Type 1 message that it supports Unicode. Either this flag or Negotiate OEM should be set, but not both. This should only be set if the client indicates in the Type 1 message that it will support OEM strings.
Either this flag or Negotiate Unicode should be set, but not both. Request Target 0x This flag is often set in the Type 2 message; while it has a well-defined meaning within the Type 1 message, its semantics here are unclear.
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