# Duobinary signaling and decoding strategies

It should be understood that the foregoing description is only illustrative of the invention. Similarly, if some digit in I 11 is 1, then the corresponding erasure whether e or f in I 12 should be changed to 1. An n, k Hamming code is a single error correcting code, which can correct any single error that may exist in a block of bits, consisting of duobinary signaling and decoding strategies bits, and parity-check bits see e.

Another way to derive an iterative decoder for the system FIG. An optimal decoding structure for a partial-response channel is known as maximum-likelihood ML decoding See e. Fundamentals and Applications ".

Xiao an Wang, Stephen B. Systems and methods of converting detector output to multi-level soft information. The decoder structure of FIG. As discussed above, a large class of digital communication or recording systems can be viewed as concatenated systems in which each building block may be an error control encoder, a modulator with constraints, or a channel with constraints. When the channel input is binary 0 or 1then the channel output, sampled at an appropriate rate, should be equivalent to the sum of the present and preceding digits.

Data block convolutional coding device and method, and corresponding decoding method and device. The resultant ternary sequence, called duobinary, is a sequence with some correlation property due to the channel bandwidth constraint. This decoding procedure works effectively with the associated transmitter that adopts a concatenation of an outer coder, a permutation and an inner coder. For this example, a majority of remaining errors and erasures contained in I9 can be corrected, obtaining I.

The iterative decoding with AZD procedure described above can be generalized to a case where a parallel concatenation is adopted at the transmitter side. By deleting the last 3 duobinary signaling and decoding strategies parity-check bits in each block of 7 bits, the final decoded output is obtained: Similarly, a concatenated system without an interleaver FIG. With 12 as the new input, the generalized MLD can correct, in this particular instance, all the remaining erasures, obtaining.